Expression Control in Singing Voice Synthesis: Features, Approaches, Evaluation, and Challenges

TitleExpression Control in Singing Voice Synthesis: Features, Approaches, Evaluation, and Challenges
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsUmbert, M., Bonada J., Goto M., Nakano T., & Sundberg J.
Journal TitleIEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Journal Date11/2015
Keywordsexpression control, review, singing voice synthesis

In the context of singing voice synthesis, expression control manipulates a set of voice features related to a particular emotion, style, or singer. Also known as performance modeling, it has been approached from different perspectives and for different purposes, and different projects have shown a wide extent of applicability. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of approaches to expression control in singing voice synthesis. Section I introduces some musical applications that use singing voice synthesis techniques to justify the need for an accurate control of expression. Then, expression is defined and related to speech and instrument performance modeling. Next, Section II presents the commonly studied set of voice parameters that can change perceptual aspects of synthesized voices. Section III provides, as the main topic of this review, an up-to-date classification, comparison, and description of a selection of approaches to expression control. Then, Section IV describes how these approaches are currently evaluated and discusses the benefits of building a common evaluation framework and adopting perceptually-motivated objective measures. Finally, Section V discusses the challenges that we currently foresee.

preprint/postprint document
Final publication
Additional material: 

All cited sounds have been collected here.